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Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place is called a
a.wave.b.medium.c.vibration.d.compression.
____ 2. Mechanical waves are created when a source of energy causes a medium to
a.move.b.compress.c.expand.d.vibrate.
____ 3. The highest parts of a transverse wave are called
a.troughs.b.crests.c.nodes.d.wavelengths.
____ 4. Waves that move the particles of the medium parallel to the direction in which the waves are traveling are called
a.longitudinal waves.b.transverse waves.c.surface waves.d.combination waves.
____ 5. The maximum distance that the particles of a medium move from the rest position is the
a.amplitude of the wave.b.wavelength of the wave.c.frequency of the wave.d.speed of the wave.
____ 6. The distance between two corresponding parts of a wave is the waves
a.amplitude.b.wavelength.c.frequency.d.speed.
____ 7. The speed of a wave is its wavelength multiplied by its
a.amplitude.b.vibration.c.frequency.d.reflection.
____ 8. The bending of waves due to a change in speed is called
a.reflection.b.refraction.c.diffraction.d.interference.
____ 9. The bending of waves around the edge of a barrier is known as
a.reflection.b.refraction.c.diffraction.d.interference.
____ 10. The interaction between two waves that meet is called
a.reflection.b.refraction.c.diffraction.d.interference.
____ 11. Waves combine to make a wave with larger amplitude in a process called
a.destructive interference.b.constructive interference.c.reflection.d.refraction.
____ 12. When an incoming wave combines with a reflected wave in such a way that the combined wave appears to be standing still, the result is a
a.longitudinal wave.b.standing wave.c.transverse wave.d.surface wave.
____ 13. What occurs when vibrations traveling through an object match the objects natural frequency?
a.reflectionb.refractionc.diffractiond.resonance
____ 14. Waves produced by earthquakes are called
a.standing waves.b.transverse waves.c.seismic waves.d.longitudinal waves.
____ 15. In which direction(s) do seismic waves travel from their point of origin?
a.north to south onlyb.toward the equator onlyc.in all directionsd.inward, toward Earths core
____ 16. Longitudinal seismic waves are known as
a.primary waves.b.secondary waves.c.surface waves.d.transverse waves.
____ 17. Secondary waves CANNOT travel through
a.rock.b.liquids.c.Earths mantle.d.Earths crust.
____ 18. Which waves arrive at a seismograph first?
a.P wavesb.S wavesc.transverse wavesd.surface waves
____ 19. What is another use of a seismograph aside from detecting earthquakes?
a.measuring tsunamisb.locating valuable resources undergroundc.predicting accurately when and where volcanoes will eruptd.locating gold dust in rivers
____ 20. What are the highest and lowest points on a standing wave called?
a.nodesb.antinodesc.compressionsd.rarefactions
____ 21. A wave travels through a medium because
a.the mediums particles are carried along with the wave.b.the waves energy passes from particle to particle.c.the medium transfers electromagnetic energy.d.the wave increases the potential energy of its medium.
____ 22. Mechanical waves are classified according to
a.their size.b.their shape.c.how they move.d.their source.
____ 23. Frequency is measured in units called
a.amps.b.hertz.c.nodes.d.antinodes.
____ 24. Scientists on the side of Earth opposite the epicenter of an earthquake detect mainly
a.P waves.b.S waves.c.transverse waves.d.surface waves.
____ 25. The height of a tsunami is low over the open ocean.The tsunamis height increases dramatically when
a.another earthquake occurs.b.the tsunami passes over a seamount.c.the tsunami meets other ocean waves.d.the tsunami reaches shallow water near a coastline.
____ 26. When a wave hits a surface through which it CANNOT pass and bounces back, it undergoes
a.reflection.b.refraction.c.constructive interference.d.destructive interference.
____ 27. Waves combine to produce a smaller or zero-amplitude wave in a process called
a.destructive interference.b.constructive interference.c.reflection.d.refraction.
____ 28. Refraction occurs when a wave
a.enters a new medium at an angle.b.hits a surface through which it cannot pass.c.moves around a barrier.d.interferes with another wave.
____ 29. When a wave moves through an opening in a barrier, it
a.is reflected.b.bends and spreads out.c.forms nodes and antinodes.d.speeds up.
____ 30. Why do you see lightning from a distant storm before you hear thunder?
a.The thunder is produced after the lightning.b.Your eyes react faster than your ears.c.Light travels faster than sound.d.Sound travels faster than light.
Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.
____ 31. Waves that require a medium through which to travel are called electromagnetic waves. _________________________
____ 32. In transverse waves, the particles of the medium move at right angles to the direction in which the wave is traveling. _________________________
____ 33. The unit associated with amplitude is the hertz. _________________________
____ 34. Refraction is a bending that occurs when a wave moves from one medium to another at an angle and changes speed. _________________________
____ 35. Constructive interference occurs when the amplitudes of two waves combine to produce a wave with a smaller amplitude. _________________________
____ 36. Nodes are points on a standing wave where the amplitude of the wave is maximum. _________________________
____ 37. The waves produced by earthquakes are known as seismic waves. _________________________
____ 38. Tsunamis are huge ocean secondary waves caused by underwater earthquakes. _________________________
____ 39. A seismograph records the air movements caused by seismic waves. _________________________
____ 40. A wave bending as it passes a point of land is an example of refraction. _________________________
Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
41. A mechanical wave is created when a medium ____________________, or moves back and forth or up and down.
42. In a longitudinal wave moving along a spring, areas where the coils are farthest apart are called ____________________.
43. The ____________________ of a mechanical wave is a direct measure of its energy.
44. If a longitudinal wave has very crowded compressions and very uncrowded rarefactions, it has a large ____________________.
45. You hear thunder several seconds after you see lightning because light travels at a(n) ____________________ speed than sound.
46. As the frequency of a wave traveling at constant speed increases, its ____________________ decreases.
47. ____________________ occurs when a wave goes around the edge of a barrier.
48. The law of reflection states that the angle of ____________________ equals the angle of reflection.
49. In ____________________ interference, the energy of the combined wave is greater than the energy of each of the two waves.
50. When the crests of one wave align with the ____________________ of an identical wave, the amplitude of the resulting wave is zero.
51. The crests and troughs of a standing wave are called ____________________.
52. ____________________ occurs when an object that is vibrating at its natural frequency absorbs energy from objects that vibrate at the same frequency.
53. When the ____________________ in rock builds up enough, the rock breaks or changes shape, releasing energy in the form of waves.
54. Transverse seismic waves are known as ____________________ waves.
55. ____________________ waves are longitudinal seismic waves.
56. A(n) ____________________ is an instrument used to detect and measure earthquakes.
57. Scientists can identify the location of an earthquake by comparing readings from at least ____________________ seismographs at different locations.
58. The material through which a wave travels is called a(n) ____________________.
59. The spreading out of waves after they pass through a narrow opening is ____________________.
60. Refraction occurs because the two sides of a wave that enter a new medium at an angle travel at different ____________________.
Short Answer
Use the diagram to answer each question.
61. What does the person transfer to the rope by pulling it up and down at point A?
62. What does the direction of arrow B indicate?
63. In what direction does the medium move relative to the direction of the wave? Explain.
64. What kind of wave is being generated?
65. What does point C represent?
66. What is the medium through which the wave is moving?
Use the diagram to answer each question.
67. What does arrow M indicate?
68. What does arrow N indicate?
69. What does the dotted line AB represent?
70. Which numbered angle represents the angle of incidence?
71. Which numbered angle represents the angle of reflection?
72. What does the line CAD represent?
Essay
73. How does the motion of the particles of the medium differ between transverse and longitudinal waves?
74. How can you measure the wavelength of a transverse wave? Of a longitudinal wave?
75. Describe how to calculate each of wavelength, speed, and frequency if you know the other two factors. What is the wavelength of a 25-hertz wave traveling at 35 cm/s?
76. Suppose that a reflected light wave has an angle of reflection of 30. What must be the angle of incidence and what must be the angle between the reflecting surface and the incoming wave? Explain.
77. What is interference? Describe the effect of each of the two types of wave interference on amplitude.
78. Explain why S waves cannot be detected on the side of Earth opposite an earthquake.
79. How do scientists use a seismograph to determine how far away an earthquake has occurred?
80. What causes refraction?
chpt 1 waves sample test
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. O-7 OBJ: O.1.1.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
2. ANS: D DIF: L1 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
3. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
4. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. O-9 OBJ: O.1.1.2
STO: 5.7.B.2
5. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. O-12 OBJ: O.1.2.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
6. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. O-13 OBJ: O.1.2.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
7. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. O-14 OBJ: O.1.2.2
STO: 5.7.B.2
8. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. O-19 OBJ: O.1.3.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4, 5.1.B.3
9. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
10. ANS: D DIF: L1 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
11. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
12. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. O-22 OBJ: O.1.3.3
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
13. ANS: D DIF: L2 REF: p. O-23 OBJ: O.1.3.3
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
14. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
15. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
16. ANS: A DIF: L1 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
17. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
18. ANS: A DIF: L2 REF: p. O-29 OBJ: O.1.4.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.8.D.2
19. ANS: B DIF: L2 REF: p. O-29 OBJ: O.1.4.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.8.D.2
20. ANS: B DIF: L3 REF: p. O-22 OBJ: O.1.3.3
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
21. ANS: B DIF: L3 REF: p. O-7 OBJ: O.1.1.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
22. ANS: C DIF: L1 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
23. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. O-13 OBJ: O.1.2.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
24. ANS: A DIF: L3 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1
STO: 5.7.B.2
25. ANS: D DIF: L3 REF: p. O-28 OBJ: O.1.4.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.D.1.a, 5.8.C.1
26. ANS: A DIF: L2 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
27. ANS: A DIF: L2 REF: p. O-21 OBJ: O.1.3.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
28. ANS: A DIF: L2 REF: p. O-19 OBJ: O.1.3.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4, 5.1.B.3
29. ANS: B DIF: L1 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.1
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
30. ANS: C DIF: L2 REF: p. O-14 OBJ: O.1.2.2
STO: 5.7.B.2
MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE
31. ANS: F, mechanical
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-7 OBJ: O.1.1.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
32. ANS: T DIF: L1 REF: p. O-8
OBJ: O.1.1.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
33. ANS: F, frequency
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-13 OBJ: O.1.2.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
34. ANS: T DIF: L2 REF: p. O-19
OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4, 5.1.B.3
35. ANS: F, Destructive
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-21 OBJ: O.1.3.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
36. ANS: F, zero
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-22 OBJ: O.1.3.3 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
37. ANS: T DIF: L1 REF: p. O-27
OBJ: O.1.4.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
38. ANS: F, surface
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-28 OBJ: O.1.4.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.D.1.a, 5.8.C.1
39. ANS: F, ground
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-29 OBJ: O.1.4.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.8.D.2
40. ANS: F, diffraction
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
COMPLETION
41. ANS: vibrates
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
42. ANS: rarefactions
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-9 OBJ: O.1.1.2 STO: 5.7.B.2
43. ANS: amplitude
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-12 OBJ: O.1.2.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
44. ANS: amplitude
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-12 OBJ: O.1.2.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
45. ANS:
greater
higher
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-14 OBJ: O.1.2.2 STO: 5.7.B.2
46. ANS: wavelength
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-14 OBJ: O.1.2.2 STO: 5.7.B.2
47. ANS: Diffraction
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
48. ANS: incidence
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
49. ANS: constructive
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
50. ANS: troughs
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-21 OBJ: O.1.3.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
51. ANS: antinodes
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-22 OBJ: O.1.3.3 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
52. ANS: Resonance
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-23 OBJ: O.1.3.3 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
53. ANS:
stress
pressure
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
54. ANS:
secondary
S
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
55. ANS:
Primary
P
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
56. ANS: seismograph
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-29 OBJ: O.1.4.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.8.D.2
57. ANS:
three
3
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-29 OBJ: O.1.4.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.8.D.2
58. ANS: medium
DIF: L1 REF: p. O-7 OBJ: O.1.1.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
59. ANS: diffraction
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-20 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
60. ANS: speeds
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-19 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4, 5.1.B.3
SHORT ANSWER
61. ANS:
energy
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
62. ANS:
the direction in which the wave is moving
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
63. ANS:
The medium moves perpendicular, or at right angles, to the wave; the rope moves up and down vertically and the wave moves horizontally.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
64. ANS:
a transverse wave
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
65. ANS:
a trough
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-8 OBJ: O.1.1.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
66. ANS:
the rope
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-7 OBJ: O.1.1.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
67. ANS:
the direction of the incoming wave
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
68. ANS:
the direction of the reflected wave
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
69. ANS:
AB is the normal, a line drawn perpendicular to the reflecting surface.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
70. ANS:
angle 1
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
71. ANS:
angle 2
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
72. ANS:
CAD is the surface of the material from which the wave is reflected.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
ESSAY
73. ANS:
The particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction in which a transverse wave is traveling. The particles of the medium move parallel to the direction in which a longitudinal wave is traveling.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-8, p. O-9 OBJ: O.1.1.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.3.B.1
74. ANS:
In general, you measure the distance between two corresponding parts of the wave. For example, in transverse waves, you might measure the distance from one crest to the next or from one trough to the next. In longitudinal waves, you might measure the distance between one compression and the next or between one rarefaction and the next.
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-13 OBJ: O.1.2.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
75. ANS:
Wavelength is equal to speed divided by frequency. Speed is equal to frequency times wavelength. Frequency is equal to speed divided by wavelength.
Wavelength=Speed/Frequency=(35cm/s)/25hertz=(35cm/s)/(25/s)=1.4cm
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-14 OBJ: O.1.2.2 STO: 5.7.B.2
76. ANS:
For the angle of reflection to be 30, the angle of incidence must be 30, too, because these two angles are always equal. So the angle between an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface of the barrier and the incoming wave must be 30. For this to happen, the angle between the surface of the barrier and the incoming wave must be 90 30 = 60.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-18 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
77. ANS:
Wave interference occurs when two waves meet and have an effect on each other. Constructive interference increases wave amplitude. Destructive interference decreases wave amplitude.
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-20, p. O-21 OBJ: O.1.3.2
STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4
78. ANS:
S waves cannot travel through liquids. So they cannot travel through the liquid water outer core of Earth to the side opposite the earthquake.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-27 OBJ: O.1.4.1 STO: 5.7.B.2
79. ANS:
P waves arrive at a seismograph earlier than S waves because P waves travel faster. By measuring the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves, scientists can tell how far away the earthquake was.
DIF: L3 REF: p. O-29 OBJ: O.1.4.2 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.8.D.2
80. ANS:
When a wave enters a new medium at an angle, one side of the wave changes speed before the other side. As a result, the entire wave bends.
DIF: L2 REF: p. O-19 OBJ: O.1.3.1 STO: 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.4, 5.1.B.3
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